Modern Germany did not exist in the eighteenth-century. A roughly similar area of northern and central Europe was divided between a large number of largely German-speaking states, within the framework of the Holy Roman Empire. The role of emperor was monopolised by the Austrian Habsburg dynasty. The other major power in the area was Prussia.

Appears in these Letters:


31 July: Revolutionary Justice in the summer of 1793

The duchess offers news and personal reflections on recent developments in the French Revolution (as seen from her home in the heart of the capital)...